گروه زبان انگلیسی متوسطه اول قاین
فعالیت هاوعملکرد همکاران وسرگروه آموزشی زبان انگلیسی متوسطه اول شهرستان قاین
Dictation Type Tests
Outline Of Dictation Type Tests
Dictation is one of the highly valid and reliable measures of language proficiency . Cohen ( 1980 ) claims that dictation is a contextualized spelling test because it has traditionally been used to test students’ spelling ability . The modern use of dictation , however , departs from its traditional treatment because dictation , as it is used nowadays , does not introduce the text word by word , but chunk by chunk . Procedures for administering the test , interpreting the scores , and maintaining practicality have led to the development of the so called standard dictation along with a variety of alternative techniques such as partial dictation , elicited imitation , dicto-comp , and dictation with competing noise . Each will be discussed briefly .
I. Standard Dictation
The most frequently used type of dictation is the standard dictation . The length of the passage is set somewhere between 100 – 150 words . Dictation is usually read and the examinees are required to write down what they hear .
The dictation passage should be read three times . The first reading gives the examinees a chance to obtain the general idea of the passage , During this reading , examinees are not allowed to write down the passage . The second reading is the most important part of the administration because during this reading , the examinees should write down what they hear. The second reading is performed at a normal rate of speech with appropriate pauses and punctuation marks provided . Finally , the third reading is performed in a manner similar to that of the first reading , The purpose of the third reading is to allow students to check their performance .
In all three readings the passage must be read at a normal rate of speech .
II. Partial Dictation
In partial dictation a passage with some deletions is given to the testees , but read in complete form. The testees are required to fill in the deleted parts as they hear the passage . Partial dictation is , in fact , an activity somewhere between cloze and dictation tasks . It is similar to dictation in that the passage is read to the testee and it is similar to cloze in that the testee should fill in the blanks .
III. Elicited Imitation
In elicited imitation the testees are required to imitate or repeat what they hear . It is called elicited because the tester tries to elicit some pieces of information . The task is classified as a kind of dictation type activity because the examinee has to produce what he hears , of course not in the written form as in standard dictation , but in oral form . This technique is quite effective with children and preliterate adults .
IV. Dicto – Comp
It is an activity formed from the combination of dictation and composition . In dicto – comp the materials are presented to the examinees orally at a normal rate of speech , and they are required to write down what they have heard . It is similar to dictation in that the materials are given to the examinee orally . It is similar to composition in that the testees should compose the text they hear . This technique is more appropriate for the students at intermediate and advanced levels of proficiency .
[ سه شنبه بیست و چهارم اسفند 1389 ] [ 11:28 ] [ مجیدقلندری ] [ ]
In His Name
Department of Education
In – Service Teacher Education
What is language ?
When we study human language , we are approaching what some might call the “ human essence ,” the distinctive qualities of mind that are , so far as we know , unique to man .
Noam Chomsky , Language and Mind
Whatever else people do when they come together – whether they play , fight , make love , or make automobiles – they talk . We live in a world of language . We talk to our friends , our associates , our wives and husbands , our lovers , our teachers , our parents , our rivals , and even our enemies . We talk to bus drivers and total strangers . We talk face-to-face and over the telephone , and everyone responds with more talk . Television and radio further swell this torrent of words . Hardly a moment of our walking lives is free from words , and even in our dreams we talk and are talked to . We also talk when there is no one to answer . Some of us talk aloud in our sleep . We talk to our pets and sometimes to ourselves .
The possession of language , perhaps more than any other attribute , distinguishes humans from other animals . According to the philosophy expressed in the myths and religions of many peoples , language is the source of human life and power . To some people of Africa , a newborn child is a kintu , a “thing” not yet a muntu , a “person” . Only by the act of learning language does the child become a human being . According to this tradition , then , we all become “human” because we all know at least one language . But what does it mean to “know” a language ?
But what does it mean to know a language ?
1. Linguistic knowledge
a) Linguistic knowledge
I. Creativity of linguistic Knowledge
b) Linguistic performance
2. Knowledge of sound system
3. Knowledge of words
4. Knowledge of sentences and non-sentences
1. Linguistic knowledge
a) Linguistic Knowledge
When we know a language , you can speak and be understood by others who know that language . This means you have the capacity to produce sounds that signify certain meanings and to understand or interpret the sounds produced by others .Most everyone knows a language . Five-year-old children are nearly as proficient at speaking and understanding as their parents . Yet the ability to carry out the simplest conversation requires profound knowledge that most speakers are unaware of . This is true for speakers of all languages . A speaker of
[ سه شنبه بیست و چهارم اسفند 1389 ] [ 11:26 ] [ مجیدقلندری ] [ ]
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